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Vaccination Programs: Client or Family Incentive Rewards


What the CPSTF Found

About The Systematic Review

The Task Force finding is based on evidence from a Community Guide systematic review completed in 2011 (6 studies with 7 study arms, search period 1980-2009) combined with more recent evidence (1 study, search period 2009-2012). This review was conducted on behalf of the Task Force by a team of specialists in systematic review methods, and in research, practice and policy related to increasing appropriate vaccination. The finding updates and replaces the 2011 finding for Client or Family Incentive Rewards [PDF 510 kB].


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Summary of Results

Content is in development.

Summary of Economic Evidence

An economic review is pending.


Content is in development.

Evidence Gaps

Each Community Preventive Services Task Force (Task Force) review identifies critical evidence gaps—areas where information is lacking. Evidence gaps can exist whether or not a recommendation is made. In cases when the Task Force finds insufficient evidence to determine whether an intervention strategy works, evidence gaps encourage researchers and program evaluators to conduct more effectiveness studies. When the Task Force recommends an intervention, evidence gaps highlight missing information that would help users determine if the intervention could meet their particular needs. For example, evidence may be needed to determine where the intervention will work, with which populations, how much it will cost to implement, whether it will provide adequate return on investment, or how users should structure or deliver the intervention to ensure effectiveness. Finally, evidence may be missing for outcomes different from those on which the Task Force recommendation is based.

Identified Evidence Gaps

Following are areas for additional research and evaluation:

  • Effectiveness of client or family incentive rewards when used alone
  • Relationships between the magnitude of the incentive reward and intervention effectiveness; potential thresholds for effectiveness
  • Duration of intervention effects
  • Effectiveness of these interventions on vaccination rates among adolescents, adults, or older adults
  • Effectiveness of these interventions in communities with disparities in vaccination rates

Study Characteristics

Content is in development.