The following list of included studies is for reviews of provider reminder and recall systems to increase breast, cervical, and colorectal cancer screening. * Notes studies that included colorectal cancer screening.
The number of studies and publications do not always correspond (e.g., a publication may include several studies or one study may be explained in several publications).
Bankhead C, Richards SH, Peters TJ, et al. Improving attendance for breast screening among recent non-attenders: a randomised controlled trial of two interventions in primary care. J Med Screen 2001;8(2):99-105.
*Becker D, Gomez E, Kaiser D, Yoshihasi A. Improving preventive care at a medical clinic: how can the patient help? Am J Prev Med 1989;5:353-9.
Binstock M, Geiger A, Hackett J, Yao J. Pap smear outreach: a randomized controlled trial in an HMO. Am J Prev Med 1997;13:425-6.
Burack R, Gimotty P, George J, et al. How reminders given to patients and physicians affected pap smear use in a health maintenance organization: results of a randomized controlled trial. Cancer 1998;82:2391-400.
Burack R, Gimotty P, George J, Simon M, Dews P, Moncrease A. The effect of patient and physician reminders on use of screening mammography in a health maintenance organization: results of a randomized controlled trial. Cancer 1996;78:1708-21.
Cecchini S, Grazzini G, Bartoli D, Falvo I, Ciatto S. An attempt to increase compliance to cervical cancer screening through general practitioners. Tumori 1989;5:615-8.
Chambers C, Balaban D, Carlson B, Ungemack J, Grasberger D. Microcomputer-generated reminders: improving the compliance of primary care physicians with mammography screening guidelines. J Fam Pract 1989;29(3):273-80.
Cheney C, Ramsdell J. Effect of medical records' checklists on implementation of periodic health measures. American Journal of Medicine 1987;83:129-36.
Cohen D, Littenberg B, Wetzel C, Neuhauser D. Improving physician compliance with preventive medicine guidelines. Med Care 1982;20:1040-5.
*Cowan J, Heckerling P, Parker J. Effect of a fact sheet reminder on performance of the periodic health examination: a randomized controlled trial. Am J Prev Med 1992;8:104-9.
Gonzalez J, Ranney J, West J. Nurse-initiated health promotion prompting system in an internal medicine residents' clinic. Southern Medical Journal 1989;82(3):342-4.
Grady K, Lemkau J, Lee N, Caddell C. Enhancing mammography referral in primary care.Preventive Medicine 1997;26:791-800.
Landis S, Hulkower S, Pierson S. Enhancing adherence with mammography through patient letters and physician prompts. N C Med J 1992;53:575-8.
*Litzelman D, Dittus R, Miller M. Requiring physicians to respond to computerized reminders improves their compliance with preventive care protocols. J Gen Intern Med 1993;8:311-7.
*McDonald C, Hui S, Smith D. Reminders to physicians from an introspective computer medical record: a two-year randomized trial. Ann Intern Med 1984;100:130-8.
McDowell I, Newell C, Rosser W. Computerized reminders to encourage cervical screening in family practice. J Fam Pract 1989;28(4):420-4.
*McPhee S, Bird J, Jenkins C, Fordham D. Promoting cancer screening: A randomized, controlled trial of three interventions. Arch Intern Med 1989;149:1866-72.
*Ornstein S, Garr D, Jenkins R, Rust P, Arnon A. Computer-generated physician and patient reminders: tools to improve population adherence to selected preventive services. J Fam Pract 1991;32(1):82-90.
Pierce M, Lundy S, Palanisamy A, Winning S, King J. Prospective randomised controlled trial of methods of call and recall for cervical cytology screening. Br Med J 1989;299:160-2.
Pritchard D, Straton J, Hyndman J. Cervical screening in general practice. Aust J Public Health 1995;19(2):167-72.
Richards SH, Bankhead C, Peters TJ, et al. Cluster randomised controlled trial comparing the effectiveness and cost-effectiveness of two primary care interventions aimed at improving attendance for breast screening. J Med Screen 2001;8(2):91-8.
Schreiner D, Petrusa E, Rettie C, Kluge R. Improving compliance with preventive medicine procedures in a house staff training program. Southern Medical Journal 1988;81:1553-7.
*Tierney WM, Hui SL, McDonald CJ. Delayed feedback of physician performance versus immediate reminders to perform preventive care. Effects on physician compliance. Med Care 1986;24(8):659-66.
*Vinker S, Nakar S, Rosenberg E, Kitai E. The role of family physicians in increasing annual fecal occult blood test screening coverage: a prospective intervention study. Isr Med Assoc J 2002;4(6):424-5.
Williams B. Efficacy of a checklist to promote a preventive medicine approach. J Tenn Med Assoc 1981;74:489-91.
*Williams R, Boles M, Johnson R. A Patient-initiated system for preventive health care: a randomized trial in community-based primary care practices. Arch Fam Med 1998;7:338-45.
Chirikos TN, Christman LK, Hunter S, Roetzheim RG. Cost-effectiveness of an intervention to increase cancer screening in primary care settings. Preventive Medicine 2004;39:230–8.
The following outlines the search strategy used for reviews of interventions to increase breast, cervical, and colorectal cancer screening.
The review team searched five computerized databases from the earliest entries in each through November 2004:
- MEDLINE, database of the National Library of Medicine (from 1966)
- Cumulative Index to Nursing and Allied Health database (CINAHL, from 1982)
- Chronic Disease Prevention database (CDP, Cancer Prevention and Control subfield, from 1988)
- PsycINFO (from 1967)
- Cochrane Library databases
Medical subject headings (MeSH) searched (including all subheadings) are shown below. The team also scanned bibliographies from key articles and solicited other citations from other team members and subject-matter experts. Conference abstracts were not included because, according to Community Guide criteria, they generally do not provide enough information to assess study validity and to address the research questions.
- Neoplasms—combined with any of the following headings: Early detection Mass screening Multiphasic screening Preventive health services Screening
- Breast neoplasms Mammography
- Cervical intraepithelial neoplasia (Uterine) cervical neoplasms Cervix dysplasia Vaginal smears
- Colonic neoplasms Colorectal neoplasms Occult blood Sigmoid neoplasms Sigmoidoscopy